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Co-existence and competition in a community of forest vertebrates

Reference Number: AA-02243 Views: 9975 Created: 28-02-2014 10:00 Last Updated: 13-03-2014 13:04 0 Rating/ Voters


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Title:Co-existence and competition in a community of forest vertebrates
Year:1995
Author/s:B.J. Traill
Degree:Doctorate
University/Institution:Monash University
Abstract:"In this thesis I examine the existence, and possible mechanisms, of competition amongst vertebrates using the same resources in a distinct ecosystem, the Box-Ironbark eucalypt forests of south-eastern Australia. I have used descriptive, comparative and experimental methods, to examine whether competition was occurring within two guilds: peraurid gliding possums, and insectivorous and nectarivorous birds. Both the gliders and birds are dependent on the same suite of resources: arthropods and various rich sources of plant and insect exudates, such as nectar, Eucalyptus sap, Acacia gum and the secretions of psyllid bugs. Previous studies and observations indicated that within each of the two guilds competition was possibly and important process in determining co-existence and community structure. Studying the two guilds enabled comparisons of the competitive strategies of two distinct groups of species that were taxonomically very different, but which were feeding on the same suite of resources. The two petaurid gliders I studied, the Squirrel Glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, and sugar glider, P. breviceps, are closely related species which are morphologically very similar. The only major morphological difference in size, Squirrel Gliders being up to twice the weight of Sugar Gliders. The two species are sympatric in many area, but previous studies indicated that they had similar autecologies. In this study detailed comparisons were made of the ecologies of sympatric populations at a site at Chiltern in north-east Victoria. The two species nested in tree hollows, either alone or in groups, some of which were maintained for extended periods. Both species had similar annual reproductive cycles with births peaking in June-July and with young apparently dispersing in late summer and autumn. Estimated average home ranges of the two species were similar (7-16 ha), despite Squirrel Gliders being nearly twice the mass of Sugar Gliders. Males of both species tended to have larger home ranges than females. Home ranges of different nesting groups overlapped both intraspecifically and interspecifically. Aside from the exclusive use of nesting hollows there was no indication of territoriality, but some aggression was observed between Squirrel Gliders, and by Squirrel Gliders attacking Sugar Gliders. Densities at one site were estimated at 0.17 ha-1 of Sugar Gliders and 0.49 ha-1 of Squirrel Gliders. This is lower than has been previously recorded for either species. The diet and foraging strategies were compared by scat analysis and direct observations of animals. Both species fed on arthropods and a range of plant and insect exudates, with nectar or pollen collected from Mugga Ironbark, Eucalptus sideroxylon, and White Box, E. albens, being favoured by both species. No difference was detected in the diet of the two gliders in four of the five seasons sampled. The exceptional season was a winter with atypically poor flowering of the favoured eucalypts. In this season the Squirrel Gliders concentrated on the few available flowering trees and may have excluded the smaller gliders from this resource. A requirement for richer sources of exudates may explain why the Squirrel Glider has a more limited distribution than the Sugar Glider. Tree-hollows are scarce at Chiltern and in other Box-Ironbark forest due to past forestry practices. Hollows used by gliders were found in both the crowns of trees and in coppicing stumps. There was considerable interspecific overlap in the use of hollows and nest-boxes, both by the gliders and by other birds and mammals. Both gliders preferred hollows and nest-boxes with narrow entrances (<50 mm diameter). Sugar Gliders preferred nest-boxes and possibly natural tree-hollows with entrances too narrow for the larger Squirrel Gliders. When abundant nest-boxes with these narrow entrances were introduced at the study site, Sugar Glider numbers increased, and then decreased when the boxes were removed. Both the descriptive and experimental results indicated that the larger Squirrel Gliders were monopolising the best available hollows. Sugar Glider numbers may have been limited by a lack of suitable hollows. Fuscous Honeyeaters, Lichenostomus fuscus, Yellow-tufted Honeyeaters, L. melanops and White-plumed Honeyeaters, L. penicillata, are common and widespread species in Box-Ironbark forests in south-eastern Australia. Initial observations suggested that these honeyeaters were totally excluding any other bird species from some vegetation types in Box-Ironbark forest. The results from counts along transects in this forest type were used to describe the distribution of bird species and communities. At each of two sites the distribution of birds was analysed using TWINSPAN, a polythetic, divisive, classification program. The results confirmed that two distinct bird communities were present. The Honeyeater community' was dominated numerically by the aggressive Lichenostomus honeyeaters (ALH'); the Fuscous, Yellow-tufted and White-plumed Honeyeaters. The Dickybird community was dominated numerically by smaller passerines (the Dickybirds') such as thornbills, Acanthiza spp., gerygones, Gerygone spp., and robins Petroica spp. The ALH were present in the Dickybird community, but were in lower densities and did not breed there. The two communities usually occupied discrete areas of the transects which had different vegetation. At one site the ALH densities decreased in the winter period. The Dickybirds' moved into the Honeyeater community areas, and moved out in spring when the ALH returned. The ALH were aggressive in all seasons. In attacks on other species they displaced the Dickybirds at a higher rate than species which coexisted with the ALH in the Honeyeater community areas. This indicates that aggression was the likely proximate factor in causing the exclusions. The Dickybirds appeared to only be excluded from areas in which the ALH bred. An alternative hypothesis is that high densities of the honeyeaters excluded the Dickybirds. This was tested by adding artificial nectar sources to attract honeyeaters into Dickybird community areas. Three pairs of experimental and control plots were used. Repeated counts of all birds were made before, during and after the addition of artificial nectar. Number of the honeyeaters increased at all three of the experimental plots. The numbers of Dickybirds showed no corresponding decrease. At two sites they increased in numbers, and at the third showed no significant change. The confounding effects of adding the artificial nectar cannot be entirely ruled out, but the results add weight to the evidence that the exclusion of Dickybirds by the ALH is not a simple density dependent relationship. The birds and the gliders had very different resource exploitation strategies. The ALH aggressively dominated particular habitats from which they excluded many other bird species. The subordinate Dickybirds were largely restricted to habitats likely to be poorer in the availability of food. In contrast, the dominant Squirrel Gliders defended only very localised resources for short periods of time and the subordinate Sugar Gliders overlapped with them in habitat use. These differences may arise from different morphological and behavioural traits which determine how effectively the various species can defend resources. With large territory sizes and limited ability to quickly detect intruders it is possibly not viable energetically for the dominant Squirrel Gliders to exclude Sugar Gliders in contiguous Box-Ironbark habitat. The small, fast-moving and diurnal Lichenostomus honeyeaters are able to successfully maintain territories from which they exclude many other species of small birds. These species are likely to be competitors for food. "
Type:Thesis
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